Exhumator Esoterics

Encyclopedia of Spiritual — Letter U - UNITED NATIONS

Exhumator Esoterics
Exhumator Esoterics

25 November 1981: Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief

10 December 1984: Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

28 May 1985: Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights established to monitor implementation of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

4 December 1986: Declaration on the Right to Development

20 November 1989: Convention on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of the Child established

15 December 1989: Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aimed at abolition of the death penalty 1990s

14 December 1990: Basic Principles for the Treatment of Principles

18 December 1990: International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families

18 December 1992: Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance

Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities

14 June 1993: World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna) opens

25 June 1993: Vienna Declaration and Plan of Action

20 December 1993: Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women

Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination proclaimed

Post of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights established

21 December 1993: International Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples proclaimed

23 December 1994: United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education proclaimed

1995: World Conference on Women's Rights (Beijing)

10 December 1998: Fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

4-8 September 2001: World Conference against Racism, Xenophobia and All Forms of Discrimination (Durban, South Africa).

In the context of its historical development, the United Nations has always considered children's issues to be important through work by bodies such as UNICEF and UNESCO. During the 1980s, specific attention to the rights of children as citizens came to the forefront of international legislation through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child. Unfortunately, in the UN era reality often falls far short of ideals. Of the goals set by such global conferences and UN conventions, one area of failure is in education. Education is a critical factor in eliminating poverty and deprivation. The Global Campaign for Education is an alliance of NGOs-Action Aid, Oxfam, and a number of agencies from the developing world-who have challenged the failure to fulfill the promise of "education for all," which has been central to the UN's mandate since the Universal Declaration. The Global Campaign for Education particularly challenges the declaration made at the World Education Summit in Dakar in 1990, that no country seriously committed to education for all would be prevented from implementing this through lack of resources. In a paper entitled "Broken Promises," the Campaign for Global Education summarizes the crisis: Education is a basic right. It is also the keystone of poverty eradication efforts. Yet more than half a century after this right was enshrined in the UN Declaration, education is in crisis in the world's poorest countries. 125 million children-nearly 60 percent of them girls-are out of primary school. Many times that number of children receive an education that is so curtailed, or of such low quality, that they acquire few of the tools needed to escape poverty.

Nearly one billion adults are unable to read and write. The following is a summary statement of the key areas of concern raised by the Global Campaign for Education, including major promises made at the Millennium Summit in 2000 and reaffirmed at the Special Session on Children (May 2002) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (August 2002), notably:

Х Gender equality in primary and secondary schools by 2005

Х Universal completion of primary education, and a 50% reduction in adult illiteracy, by 2015

Yet the Campaign for Global Education suggests that "without concerted action by both donors and developing countries' governments, these promises will be broken. On current trends, the goal of universal primary education will be missed in 88 countries, and 75 million children will remain out of school in 2015. Already, the 2005 goal of gender equity in education appears beyond reach." The achievement of such goals remains fundamental to the most basic capacity of children and young people's spiritual and religious development.