Exhumator Esoterics

Encyclopedia of Spiritual — Letter U - UNESCO

Exhumator Esoterics
Exhumator Esoterics

The right to development can be seen as a secondgeneration right (relating economic, social, and cultural development) or a third-generation right (relating to questions of "human solidarity"). In terms of UN human rights policy, it fits both second- and thirdgeneration thinking. On one hand, notions of development are fundamental to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Development (1966). Yet, on the other, the specific UN Declaration on Development appears only in 1986, 20 years after the covenant was written. There are increasing moves to integrate development and human rights discourse together within international legislation. This is evidenced by the following UN conferences and summits to discuss development issues where human rights discourse increasingly came to the fore. The preamble to the Declaration on the Right to Development thus highlights the notion of the indivisibility of all rights. It recognizes that "development is a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process, which aims at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of benefits resulting therefrom."

Indeed, it recalls the provisions of both the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and in so doing "the right of peoples to self-determination, by virtue of which they have the right freely to determine their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural development."

It also recognizes "the right of peoples to exercise, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, full and complete sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources." What would have been unthinkable in 1948, and increasingly inevitable in 1966, was the sense of historical injustice done by the presently wealthy and former colonial powers so instrumental in drawing up the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The range of post-1948 standards of relevance to the right to development is presented below.

International Legal Standards: Defending the Right to Development

Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition (16 November 1964)

Declaration on Social Progress and Development (11 December 1969)

Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons (20 December 1971)

Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind (10 November 1975)

Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons (9 December 1975)

Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace (12 November 1984)

Declaration on the Right to Development (4 December 1986)

Guidelines for the Regulation of Computerized Personal Data Files (14 December 1990)

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (18 December 1990)

Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care (17 December 1991)

Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (UNESCO) (11 November 1997)

Right to Enjoy Culture, International Cultural Development and Co-operation Declaration of the Principles of International Cultural Co-operation (UNESCO) (4 November 1966)

Recommendation Concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education Relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (UNESCO) (19 November 1974).

In the final analysis, despite talk of the integrated nature of (economic, social, and cultural; civil and political) rights, the right to development is crucially dependent in one way or another on finance. Thus, the Declaration recognizes that the "creation of conditions favourable to the development of peoples and individuals is the primary responsibility of their States," with hopes that on a global level there might be "a new international economic order."